Wayclip and the WaylandCB Class

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Wayclip and the WaylandCB Class

Copyright © 2005 - 2020
            Mahlon R. Smith, The Software Samurai

This manual describes version 0.0.03 of the WaylandCB class,
and version 0.0.27 of the gString class.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled  "GNU Free Documentation License".

   This document is an extract from the NcDialog API library documentation.
         Please see the larger document for more details and examples.

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Wayland Clipboard

A Brief History

Since the early days of GUI (Graphical User Interface) computing under UNIX, the X Windows windowing system has been used to draw most of what the user sees, as well as hooks to enable most of the users’ interaction with the system. X Windows began life at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), but for most of its life has been based at the X.Org Foundation which is a non-profit standards group which manages a wide variety of computing projects.

X Windows was never really designed; but rather emerged bit-by-bit, butt-first from the Wild West days of computing. It is truly an amazing system that few of us can actually understand, even if we wanted to do so. However, the ad-hoc nature of X has led to a long series of unsupervised, obsolete or abandoned software protocols as hardware and software environments have evolved. It is also a breeding ground for security vulnerabilities. And it is this last point that has, more than anything else, driven the X.Org Foundation’s effort to replace X with a more modern and robust communications protocol for GUI environments. That new protocol is known as Wayland.

The primary beneficiary of the Wayland protocol is the GNU/Linux community. In 2017, the GNOME world began the painful and slow transition from X to Wayland. The interface to Wayland is primarily through the GTK or Qt developer’s toolkits, which provides only limited support for pure console applications.
Wayland was, and remains a hotbed of semi-functional code filled with annoying bugs and questionable design decisions. However, since early 2019 the Wayland protocol, as implemented within the “GNOME/Wayland compositor” has stablized to the point where we are actually starting to get some real work done again instead of stopping twice a day to write a bug report or to fire off a rant about how “it used to work under X!!”

And here we are today, introducing our own first step into the Wayland world, the Wayland clipboard interface class “WaylandCB” for console applications.

Console Access to the Clipboard

For GUI developers, access to the Wayland clipboard is built into the GTK or Qt libraries which provide the framework for most GUI applications under Linux. We are happy to let the GUI developers draw their pretty (and sometimes undeniably awesome) pictures on the screen.

However, your author was developing UNIX software long before there was any such thing as a GUI, and believes that if it cannot be done at the command prompt, it probably shouldn’t be done at all. While this is arguably a Neandertal’s point-of-view, the command line is still the heart of the Linux system, and access to the system clipboard from within a terminal window is essential.

The Wayland Clipboard Interface

Several developers/enthusiasts, notably Sergey Bugaev, have created a suite of console utilities known as the “wl-clipboard” package. The package consists of two console utilities, “wl-copy” and “wl-paste”. While these utilities are simple in concept and frankly incomplete in execution, they hold promise for a robust console/clipboard interface.

Visit Sergey at:

Because these are console utilities, they are written primarily for passing text data between the console and the clipboard. They do however support the basics of a general-purpose clipboard.

If you are a developer in Perl, Ruby, Python, etc. these utilities may be called directly. If you are developing in C, C++ or another high-level programming language, it is inconvenient and often messy or dangerous to be calling external utilities. For this reason, we have created a small interface module, WaylandCB which sits between your application and the “wl-clipboard” utilities.

The “wl-clipboard” package must be installed on your system in order to use the WaylandCB clipboard access module. Installation is simple. The package can be installed directly from the repository using your preferred package manager:

sudo dnf install 'wl-clipboard'
sudo apt-get install 'wl-clipboard'

The two console utilities will be installed (probably in the '/usr/bin' directory).

In the console window, test the installation by copying something to the clipboard and reading it back:

wl-copy "Roses are red, violets are violet. Send me some soon, or I may become violent."


If you get back what you sent, the package is installed correctly.

The package also includes a rudimentary “man page.”
info 'wl-clipboard'

The WaylandCB class

WaylandCB provides a simple interface between console applications and the Wayland clipboards. The Wayland Clipboard Class, “WaylandCB” is a very simple C++ class definition, consisting of two source files, and two dependencies.

The WaylandCB class itself is 600 lines of C++ code in two files:

WaylandCB.hpp // class definition
WaylandCB.cpp // class implementation

Software Sam’s first rule of software design is “Write the comments first!”, so you will not be surprised to find that the code is supported by detailed comments to assist the developer in understanding how the clipboard works and how to access it. Many of those comments are duplicated in this document.

It is not actually necessary to understand the mechanics of the code in order to get the full value of its functionality, but for the curious, the path to understanding is an easy one.


Dependency #1:
wl-clipboard utilities: wl-copy and wl-paste
The wl-clipboard utilities and the method for installing them are described in the previous section.

Dependency #2:
The gString module performs encoding conversions between UTF-8 and UTF-32 (wchar_t) text. In addition, it provides text analysis and formatting tools similar to the GTK Glib::ustring class, but much smaller and faster.

The gString module is bundled with the WaylandCB package.

Also, the gString package is integrated into the NcDialogAPI, or is available as a separate download from the author’s website.

Integration into your application

If your application is based on the NcDialogAPI, the WaylandCB interface is fully-integrated into the API, so building the stand-alone WaylandCB module into your application is unnecesary.
Please see the “Clipboard Interface” chapter of the NcDialogAPI documentation for details.

If your application does not use the NcDialogAPI, then the WaylandCB and gString modules may be built as a separate link library or may be built directly into your application source. Because they are both very small modules, it is recommended that they be built as ordinary source modules in your application. Your makefile would then include entries something like this.

.RECIPEPREFIX = > COMPILE = g++ -x c++ -std=gnu++11 -Wall -c yourapp: $(your .o files) WaylandCB.o gString.o > g++ -o yourapp $(your .o files) WaylandCB.o gString.o - - - # WaylandCB class WaylandCB.o: WaylandCB.cpp WaylandCB.hpp gString.hpp > $(COMPILE) WaylandCB.cpp # gString class gString.o: gString.cpp gString.hpp > $(COMPILE) gString.cpp

Your application would then call the public methods of the WaylandCB class as needed. See the next section for details.

WaylandCB Public Methods

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Wayclip Demo App

The “wl-clipboard” suite: “wl-copy” and “wl-paste” must be installed on your system for the Wayclip application to function properly. Please see Wayland Clipboard Interface for installation instructions.

The Wayland communications protocol is the successor to the X-Windows protocol, and the GNOME/Wayland compositor is the new window manager based on the Wayland protocol.

Note that other communication protocols for UNIX-like systems exist at various stages of development; however, both GNOME and KDE have committed to supporting Wayland. Most systems based on these platforms have also announced support for Wayland as the “official” successor to X-Windows.

‘Wayclip’ is a simple console application that demonstrates the “WaylandCB” interface class which provides access to the Wayland clipboard.

Application Design

‘Wayclip’ is an embarrassingly simple console application written in C++. The application provides straightforward examples for accessing the public methods of the WaylandCB interface class.
Please see WaylandCB class for more information.

The WaylandCB class, in turn, provides access to the “wl-clipboard” utilities: “wl-copy” and “wl-paste” written by Sergey Bugaev (and friends).
Please see Wayland Clipboard Interface for more information.

The application is designed around a menu of available commands (see User Interface). These commands exercise each of the public methods of the WaylandCB interface class.

Wayclip produces color-coded output using simple ANSI color commands (escape sequences).

Although Wayclip will run in a terminal window of any reasonable size, it is recommended that you expand your terminal window to at least 36 rows and 132 columns for optimal viewing.


–p Set target clipboard to “Primary”

Set the initial target clipboard to the Wayland “Primary” clipboard.

This clipboard is designed primarily for data that have been highlighted within an application; however for text data, this clipboard has all the same capabilities as the “Regular” clipboard.

The target clipboard may also be specified from within the application using the '-a' (Active-clipboard) command.

–r Set target clipboard to “Regular”

Set the initial target clipboard to the Wayland “Regular” clipboard.

This is the main system clipboard and can handle all the standard data types and data formats. This is the default clipboard, so if the target clipboard is not specified on the Wayclip command line, the “Regular” clipboard is the initial target.

The target clipboard may also be specified from within the application using the '-a' (Active-clipboard) command.

––version Version and copyright message.

Display the application version number and the basic copyright notice.

––help (or –h) Help for application.

Display a list of available command-line options.

User Interface

The Wayclip application’s user interface is menu driven so there is little need to refer to this documentation except to satisfy the naturally insatiable curiosity of the software programmer.

Copying Data To the Clipboard

Data may be copied to the Regular (main) clipboard from any application on the desktop, for instance a text editor, a LibreOffice(tm) document, or from a web page in your browser.

Data may be copied to the Primary clipboard by using the mouse to highlight text in any application on the desktop including the current terminal window.

For the tests performed by the Wayclip application, data are limited to text data only.

The Wayclip Menu

Wayclip - v:0.0.03 (c)2019-2020 The Software Samurai ====================================================== MAIN MENU: (Press ENTER key after command key) a : Set "active" clipboard. Currently active: Regular c : Copy test data to active clipboard. m : Display Main Menu p : Paste data from active clipboard. r : Report available MIME types and misc. info. x : Clear active clipboard. R : Reset and re-initialize clipboard connection. s : Specify text to be copied to clipboard. t : Test the clipboard connection. S : Specify internal communications format. w : Clear the terminal window. q : Quit >>

Type the command letter and then press the ENTER key.

Explanation of each command

Three additional commands are available but to save space, were not included in the menu. These commands are primarily for the convenience of the developer, but the commands are fully functional and available for use.

Please note that these are upper-case letters.

Please note that this application disables the “Panic Button” (CTRL+C), so the user must exit the application using the ‘q’ (ENTER) command. The reason for this is that our beta-testers continually tried to use CTRL+C and CTRL+V as copy and paste, respectively.
No, no, beta-testers! RTFM! (We know that you would never do anything that foolish. :-)

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gString Text Tool

’gString’ is a small, fast and flexible way to seamlessly convert, format and analyze both UTF-8 and wchar_t (’wide’) text.

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Introduction to gString

Introduction to a Wider World

Modern applications must be designed for a worldwide audience, and for this reason, the application designer must plan for multi-language support.

Fortunately, the Universal Character Set standard ISO/IEC 10646 and UTF-8, the most popular and flexible method of character-encoding smoothly provide all the character sets, alphabets and special characters which are currently in general use.

Unfortunately, the C and C++ languages offer only minimal support for internationalization. std::string and std::wstring are nothing more than a cruel joke to a serious application designer. The GTK+ toolkit’s Glib::ustring class is an excellent internationalization tool, but it requires installation of the GTK+ toolkit’s ’glib’ and ’glibmm’ libraries. For more information on Glib::ustring, see:

’gString’ falls halfway between the full feature set of Glib::ustring and the meaningless garbage that is std::string. ’gString’ consists of one C++ header file and one C++ source code module. ’gString’ is integrated into the NcDialog API library, but may also be compiled independently as a small (16Kb) link library or the source may be embedded directly into your application.

Preparing to Support Multiple Languages

Here are the basic ideas you will need to understand in order for your application to smoothly support multiple languages.

  1. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is only the very first step in character encoding. It is an ancient and venerable encoding, but supports only the 95 printable characters of the basic Latin alphabet.
    If you think you can say "你是在欺骗自己!" in ASCII, you’re just deluding yourself!
  2. NEVER assume that one character can be represented with one byte.
  3. NEVER assume that one character is one display column in width.
  4. The idea that text flows from left-to-right, may only be PROVISIONALLY assumed, because again: "!איר זענט נאָר דילודינג זיך" you’re just deluding yourself. (In fact, the characters of the above Yiddish sentence had to be manually reversed so that it would be displayed correctly in this document.)
  5. NEVER assume that "everyone reads English, so why bother?". Native speakers of Spanish, French, Chinese, the various flavors of Arabic and others (i.e. your potential customers) all have a significant impact on the daily events of our planet, so include them when planning for your next killer app.

See also a discussion of multiple-language support in the NcDialog API.

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gString Public Methods

What follows is a list of all public methods of the gString class.
Methods are arranged in functional groups.

        gString Method Name            Chapter Reference    
 gString [constructor] see gString Instantiation
 ~gString [destructor] 
 operator= see Assignment Operators
 compose see Formatted Assignments
 formatInt see Integer Formatting
 gstr see Data Access
 copy see Copying Data
 append see Modifying Existing Data
 compare see Comparisons
 gschars see Statistical Info
 clear see gString Miscellaneous

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gString Instantiation

The following are the ’constructors’ for the gString class.

For those new to C++, a constructor creates an ’instance’ of the class. An instance is a particular, named object, and can be thought of as a complex variable.

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Assignment Operators

For those new to C++, an assignment operator assigns (initializes) the object to the left of the ’=’ using the data on the right of the ’=’. You may also hear the term ’overloaded operator’. This just means that the ’=’ assignment operator may be defined in more than one way, so it will perform different tasks according to the context or circumstance.


char utf8Data[] = { "Youth is wasted on the young." } ;
gString gs1, gs2 ;

gs1 = utf8Data ;
gs2 = gs1 ;
wcout << gs2 << endl ;
 - - -> Youth is wasted on the young.

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Formatted Assignments


char      Greeting[] = { "Hello!" } ;
int       iValue = 27064 ;
long long int qValue = 7842561 ;
long int  lValue = 485772 ;
short int sValue1 = 28875, sValue2 = -261, sValue3 = 529 ;
bool      flagValue = true ;
float     fltValue = 278.5610234 ;
double    dblValue = 9982.5610234 ;
gString gs ;
gs.compose( "%s - %d %12hd, %-hi, %#hx %08lXh %lld %hhd",
            Greeting, &iValue, &sValue1, &sValue2, &sValue3,
            &lValue, &qValue, &flagValue ) ;
wcout << gs << endl ;
 - - -> Hello! - 27064        28875, -261, 0x211 0007698Ch 7842561 1
gs.compose( "floating downstream:%10.2f and doubling our pace:%.4lf",
            &fltValue, &dblValue ) ;
wcout << gs << endl ;
 - - -> floating downstream:    278.56 and doubling our pace:9982.5610

See also formatted instantiation: see gString Instantiation.

Important Note on Formatting

Because THE PARAMETERS ARE POINTERS TO THEIR DATA, similar to the C/C++ library function ’sscanf’ and friends, the compiler cannot perform automatic promotions from short int* to int* or from float* to double*, and so-on as it would for swprintf.

This implementation was selected because a) it eliminates data-width conflicts when moving among hardware platforms, and b) it reduces code size while increasing performance.

This implementation relies on you, the designer, to use care that the data type you specify in the formatting string matches the data type of the variable referenced by its parameter pointer AND that you use the ’address-of’ (’&’) operator to reference non-pointer variables. Note also that ’literal’ values may not be used as parameters because literals have no address.

The following constructs will produce errors:

gString gs ;
char   grade = 'A' ;
short  age   = 21 ;
int    sat   = 1550 ;
double gpa   = 3.75 ;

   // These examples fail to use the 'address-of' operator for the 
   // referenced variables, and will cause a 'segmentation fault' 
   // i.e. an application crash.
   gs.compose( "My grade is an %c", grade ) ;
   gs.compose( "I got a %d on my SAT.", sat ) ;
   // The above should be:
   gs.compose( "My grade is an %c", &grade ) ;
   gs.compose( "I got a %d on my SAT.", &sat ) ;

   // These examples use mismatched format-specification/variable 
   // reference. This will result in either bad data out OR will 
   // cause a memory-access violation.
   gs.compose( "I can't wait to be %d.", &age ) ;
   gs.compose( "My GPA is %1.3f", &gpa ) ;
   gs.compose( "The hex value of %c is: %#x", &grade, &grade ) ;
   gs.compose( "My GPA is %1.3lf", 3.88 ) ; // (literal value)
   // The above should be:
   gs.compose( "I can't wait to be %hd.", &age ) ;
   gs.compose( "My GPA is %1.3lf", &gpa ) ;
   gs.compose( "The hex value of %c is: %#hhx", &grade, &grade ) ;

Parameter Type Checking:
Unfortunately, type-checking of wchar_t formatting strings is not yet supported by the gnu (v:4.8.0) compiler, (but see wchar.h which is preparing for the future). Thus, use care when constructing your ’wchar_t fmt’ formatting string. The ’char fmt’ string IS type-checked.

Depending on your compiler version, you may get a warning when using the '%b' binary format specification (described below):
"warning: unknown conversion type character ‘b’ in format [-Wformat=]"
This is because the preprocessor does not recognize our custom format specifier. If this happens, use a ’wchar_t’ (wide) formatting template to avoid the preprocessor type checking.

Instead of:
      gs.compose( "bitmask: %b", &wk.mevent.eventType );
Use this (not type checked by the preprocessor):
      gs.compose( L"bitmask: %b", &wk.mevent.eventType );

Formatted binary output (extension to swprintf)

We implement an extension to the swprintf output-conversion-specifiers for binary formatted output. We have found this formatting option useful when working with bit masks, for verifying bit-shifting operations during encryption/decryption and other uses.

Field-width specification (swprintf bug fix)

The standard library ’swprintf’ function has a design flaw for format specifications that include a field-width specifier.

’swprintf’ pads the string to the specified number of CHARACTERS, not the number of COLUMNS as it should do. For ASCII numeric source values this is not a problem because one character equals one display column. For string source data, however, if the source string contains characters that require more than one display column each, then the output may be too wide.

Therefore, for string-source-formatting specifications ONLY:
          (examples: "%12s"  "%-6s"  "%16ls"  "%5S"  "%-24S")
we compensate for this ethnocentric behavior by interpreting the field-width specifier as number-of-columns, NOT number-of-characters. For non-ASCII string data, this will result in output that appears different (and better) than output created directly by the ’swprintf’ function.

Unsupported format specifications

Conversion modifiers that are not fully supported at this time:
                       ’j’, ’z’, ’t’, ’%[’
Also, the ’*’ field-width specification or precision specification which uses the following argument as the width/precision value IS NOT supported.

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Integer Formatting

  Input  :
     iVal  : value to be converted
             Supported value range: plus/minus 9.999999999999 terabytes
     fWidth: field width (number of display columns)
             range: 1 to FI_MAX_FIELDWIDTH
     lJust : (optional, false by default)
             if true, strip leading spaces to left-justify the value
             in the field. (resulting string may be less than fWidth)
     sign  : (optional, false by default)
             'false' : only negative values are signed
             'true'  : always prepend a '+' or '-' sign.
     kibi  : (optional, false by default)
             'false' : calculate as a decimal value (powers of 10)
                       kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte, terabyte
             'true'  : calculate as a binary value (powers of 2)
                       kibibyte, mebibyte, gibibyte, tebibyte
     units  : (optional) member of enum fiUnits (fiK by default)
              specifies the format for the units suffix.
              Note that if the uncompressed value fits in the field,
              then this parameter is ignored.

     'true' if successful
     'false' if field overflow (field will be filled with '#' chars)
             See notes below on field overflow.

Convert an integer value into a formatted display string of the specified width. Value is right-justified in the field, with leading spaces added if necessary (but see ’lJust’ parameter).

Maximum field width is FI_MAX_FIELDWIDTH. This is wide enough to display a 18-digit, signed and comma-formatted value: '+9,876,543,210,777'

Actual formatting of the value depends on the combination of: a) magnitude of the value b) whether it is a signed value c) the specified field-width d) the specified suffix format e) locale-specific grouping of digits according the LC_NUMERIC locale environment variable Important Note: the 'C' (default) locale defines an empty string as the grouping separator character. Therefore, the locale should be explicitly set before calling this method. (This is done automatically when the NcDialog API is initialized.) f) See notes below on the possible reasons for field overflow: see field overflow The following examples are based on the U.S. English locale: ‘en_US.utf8’.


1) Simple comma formatted output if specified field-width is sufficient.
   345    654,345    782,654,345    4,294,967,295

2) Output with values compressed to fit a specified field width.
   12.3K    999K    12.345M    1.234G    4.3G

gString gs ;      // gString object

3) Convert a signed integer value:
   int iValue = 28954 ;

   // field width == 8, right justified (note: compression unnecessary)
   gs.formatInt( iValue, 8 ) ;
   wcout << ':' << gs << ':' << endl ;
    - - >  :  28,954:

   // field width == 8, left justified (note: compression unnecessary)
   gs.formatInt( iValue, 8, true ) ;
   wcout << ':' << gs << ':' << endl ;
    - - >  :28,954:

   // field width == 6
   gs.formatInt( iValue, 6 ) ;
   wcout << ':' << gs << ':' << endl ;
    - - >  :28.95K:

   // field width == 6 with forced sign
   gs.formatInt( iValue, 6, false, true ) ;
   wcout << ':' << gs << ':' << endl ;
    - - >  :+29.0K:

   // field width == 5
   gs.formatInt( iValue, 5 ) ;
   wcout << ':' << gs << ':' << endl ;
    - - >  :29.0K:

   iValue = -28954 ;    // convert negative source value

   // field width == 8, right justified (note: compression unnecessary)
   gs.formatInt( iValue, 8 ) ;
   wcout << ':' << gs << ':' << endl ;
    - - >  : -28,954:

   // field width == 8, left justified (note: compression unnecessary)
   gs.formatInt( iValue, 8, true ) ;
   wcout << ':' << gs << ':' << endl ;
    - - >  :-28,954:

   // field width == 6
   gs.formatInt( iValue, 6 ) ;
   wcout << ':' << gs << ':' << endl ;
    - - >  :-29.0K:

   // field width == 5
   gs.formatInt( iValue, 5 ) ;
   wcout << ':' << gs << ':' << endl ;
    - - >  : -29K:

4) Convert an unsigned long long integer value (field width == 11):
   unsigned long long int qValue = 39000009995 ;

   // decimal compression (gigabytes) with "official" IEC suffix
   gs.formatInt( qValue, 11, false, false, false, fikB ) ;
   wcout << ':' << gs << ':' << endl ;
    - - >  :39.000010gB:

   // binary compression (gibibytes) with "official" IEC suffix
   gs.formatInt( qValue, 11, false, false, true, fiKiB ) ;
   wcout << ':' << gs << ':' << endl ;
    - - >  :38.08595GiB:

Please see (NcDialog test application, ’Dialogw’ for more examples.)

Important Note: As of gString version 0.0.25, the prototypes for the old ’formatInteger’ methods have been replaced by the ’formatInt’ method group. If your existing code calls the old ’formatInteger’ methods, then you will need to update your code.

Only the method name needs to be changed from ’formatInteger’ to ’formatInt’. This is because only the first three(3) parameters of ’formatInteger’ had been implemented anyway. Happy formatting!

Notes on the formatInt group

Optional specification of the units suffix for the ’formatInt’ methods. Units are specified using the optional 'units' parameter, which is a member of the 'fiUnits' enumerated type.. enum fiUnits : short { fiK, // 'K' 'M' 'G' 'T' (default) fik, // 'k' 'm' 'g' 't' fiKb, // 'Kb' 'Mb' 'Gb' 'Tb' fikB, // 'kB' 'mB' 'gB' 'tB' ("official" metric 'kilo' designation) fiKiB, // 'KiB' 'MiB' 'GiB' 'TiB' ("official" binary 'kibi' designation) } ; The ’formatInt’ methods use decimal (powers of 10) compression calculations by default. To use binary (powers of 2) compression, use the optional 'kibi' parameter. DECIMAL BINARY kilobytes (x/1000) kibibytes (x/1024) megabytes (x/1000000) mibibytes (x/1024000) gigabytes (x/1000000000) gibibytes (x/1024000000) terabytes (x/1000000000000) tebibytes (x/1024000000000)

The kilo/kibi controversy

The IEC (International System of Quantities) recommends lower-case for metric (powers of 10) and upper-case for binary (powers of 2). However, unless you must be accurate in presenting the data according to IEC standard, it is recommended that you choose the format according to: your space requirements, visual appeal, and clear communication with your users.
If you blindly follow style standards against your own better judgement, then be forever labelled as a weenie.

formatInt field overflow

As described above, the actual formatting of a fixed-width integer field depends on a number of factors. Every effort is made to compress the data to fit within the field while retaining an accurate representation of the numeric value.

There are cases, however, where it is not possible to represent the data within the specified field width. When this occurs, the entire field will be filled with HASH characters '#'.

The specified field must be wide enough to accomodate either the entire, uncompressed value, or the combination of compressed value, units designator and sign (if any). The following situations may cause field overflow.

a) Values <= -10.0 Tbytes or >= 10.0 Tbytes cannot be represented by 'formatInt' methods. b) One-column fields can display values between 0 and 9. Values outside this range will cause overflow. c) Two-column fields can display values between -9 and 99. Values outside this range will cause overflow. d) Three-column fields can display compressed data only if the combined width of value, sign and units require no more than three(3) columns. e) Four-column fields can display compressed data only if the combined width of value, sign and units require no more than four(4) columns. f) Five-column fields can accurately display any value IF the units designator requires only one(1) column. g) Six-column fields can accurately display any value IF the units designator requires no more than two(2) columns.

Fields of seven(7) or more columns can display any formatted value without danger of overflow.

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Data Access


short charCount, byteCount ;
gString gs( "Wherever you go, there you are!" ) ;

const wchar_t* wPtr = gs.gstr() ;
const wchar_t* wPtr = gs.gstr( charCount ) ;
const char* utf8Ptr = gs.ustr() ;
const char* utf8Ptr = gs.ustr( charCount, byteCount ) ;

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Copying Data


gString gs( "That's not flying, that's falling -- with style!\n"
            "Buzz Lightyear" ) ;
char utf8Data[gsMAXBYTES] ;
wchar_t wideData[gsMAXCHARS] ;

gs.copy( utf8Data, gs.utfbytes() ) ;
gs.copy( wideData, gs.gschars() ) ;

gString gstream( "You're a child's TOY! -- Woody" ) ;
wcout << gstream << endl ;

// get a copy of the first word starting with 'c'
gString AusAnimal( "Aardvark Kangaroo Cockatoo Dingo Wombat " ) ;
gString gsc ;
short b = AusAnimal.find( " c" ) ;
if ( b >= 0 )
   short e = AusAnimal.find( L' ', b + 1 ) ;
   if ( e > b )
      AusAnimal.substr( gsc, (b + 1), (e - b - 1) ) ;
      wcout << gsc << endl ;
 - - -> Cockatoo

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Modifying Existing Data

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Important Note: The prototypes for the ’compare’ methods have changed between gString version 0.0.24 and version 0.0.25 to implement the optional case-insensitive comparison.

If your existing code uses the ’compare’ method’s optional parameters, it is important that you update your source code to coincide with the new prototypes.

If your existing code uses only the ’uStr’ or ’wStr’ required parameter, then no code update is required.


gString str1( "Toys for Tots" ) ;
gString str2( "The Tin Drum" ) ;

// compare with UTF-8 string
short result = str1.compare( "Toys for Tots" ) ;

// compare with wchar_t string
short result = str2.compare( L"The Tin Drum" ) ;

// compare gString objects
if ( str1 == str2 ) { /* do stuff */ }
if ( str1 != str2 ) { /* do stuff */ }

gString gs( L"Tiny Tim had a titillating tour of Times Square." ) ;

// find first instance of substring "tim" (not case sensitive)
short tIndex = gs.find( "tim" ) ;
wcout << &gs.gstr()[tIndex] << endl ;
 - - -> Tim had a titillating tour of Times Square.

// find the next instance of "tim"
gString gsSub( "tim" ) ;      // search string in a gString object
tIndex = gs.find( gsSub, tIndex + 1 ) ;
wcout << &gs.gstr()[tIndex] << endl ;
 - - -> Times Square.

// find first instance of substring "ti" (case sensitive)
tIndex = gs.find( L"ti", 0, true ) ;
wcout << &gs.gstr()[tIndex] << endl ;
 - - -> titillating tour of Times Square.

// match the first three characters of the search string
tIndex = gs.find( L"squirrel", 0, false, 3 ) ;
wcout << &gs.gstr()[tIndex] << endl ;
 - - -> Square.

// find first instance of L'R' (not case sensitive)
tIndex = gs.find( L'R' ) ;
wcout << &gs.gstr()[tIndex] << endl ;
 - - -> r of Times Square.

// extract the filename from path/filename string
gString gs( "/home/sam/SoftwareDesign/NcDialog/Dialog1/gString.hpp" ) ;
if ( (tIndex = gs.findlast( L'/' )) >= 0 )
   wcout << &gs.gstr()[tIndex + 1] << endl ;
 - - -> gString.hpp

// insert text after first instance of substring
gString gs( "I think that a parrot would be an ideal pet." ) ;
short pIndex = gs.after( L"would" ) ;
gs.insert( " NOT", pIndex ) ;
 - - -> I think that a parrot would NOT be an ideal pet.

For more examples of using gString-class methods, please refer to Test #6 of the ’Dialogw’ test application.

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Statistical Info

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gString Miscellaneous

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gString Examples

The NcDialog API test application ’Dialogw’ contains extensive examples of gString usage, including working copies of the examples used in this chapter.
The other NcDialog API test applications also use gString in various ways.

Here, we show just a sample of some basic uses for the gString class.

  1. Convert a UTF-8 (8-bit) character string to a wchar_t (32-bit) character string.
    const char* some_UTF-8_data = "I want to buy an hamburger." ;
    wchar_t some_wide_data[gsMAXCHARS] ;
    gString gs( some_UTF-8_data ) ;
    gs.copy( some_wide_data, gsMAXCHARS ) ;
  2. Convert a wchar_t (32-bit) character string to a UTF-8 (8-bit) character string.
    const wchar_t* some_wide_data = L"I want to buy an hamburger." ;
    char some_UTF-8_data[gsMAXBYTES] ;
    gString gs( some_wide_data ) ;
    gs.copy( some_UTF-8_data, gsMAXBYTES ) ;
  3. Concatenate strings.
    const char* Head = "Where" ;
    const wchar_t* Tail = L"is Carmen Sandiego?" ;
    gString gs( L" in the world " ) ;
    gs.insert( Head, ZERO ) ;
    gs.append( Tail ) ;
    wcout << gs << endl ;
     - - ->  Where in the world is Carmen Sandiego?
  4. Create formatted string data.
    const char* utf8String = "We present" ;
    const wchar_t* wideString = L"for your enjoyment:" ;
    const char utf8Char = 'W' ;
    const wchar_t wideChar = L'C' ;
    short int ways = 100 ;
    double dish = 17.57 ;
    gString gs ;
    gs.compose( "%s %S %hd %cays to %Cook %Chicken,\n"
                "and %.2lf side dishes and beverages!",
                &wideChar, &wideChar,
                &dish ) ;
    wcout << gs << endl ;
     - - ->  We present for your enjoyment: 100 Ways to Cook Chicken,
             and 17.57 side dishes and beverages!

    Important Note: All parameters are pointers to the data: For strings (and pointers), the address is the name of the variable. For all other data types, including single characters, use the address-of ('&') operator.

  5. Count display columns to make data fit the window.

    This is a formatting method taken from the ’Dialogx’ test application. It breaks a text stream into lines which fit within the dianostic window. It’s not speedy (or particularly smart), but it demonstrates the use of ’gString’ to calculate the space needed to display text data and then formatting the data to fit the space.

    //*  FormatOutput   *
    //* Input  : gsOut     : semi-formatted source data
    //*          wpos      : start position for display
    //*          lineCount : maximum display lines before truncation
    //* Returns: nothing
    void dXClip::FormatOutput ( const gString& gsOut, 
                                winPos& wpos, short lineCount )
       short tWidth = (ddCOLS - 2),        // inside width of target window
             maxWidth = tWidth * lineCount,// max columns for message
             tLines = ZERO ;               // loop counter
       gString gsw( gsOut.gstr() ), gso ;
       if ( gsw.gscols() > maxWidth )
       { // truncate the string if necessary
          gsw.limitCols ( maxWidth - 3 ) ;
          gsw.append( L"..." ) ;
       {  // break the source into convenient widths
          gso = gsw ;
          gso.limitCols( tWidth ) ;
          gso.append( L'\n' ) ;
          gsw.shiftCols( -tWidth ) ;
          this->dpd->ClearLine ( wpos.ypos ) ; // clear target display line
          wpos = this->dpd->WriteParagraph ( wpos, gso, 
                                             dxPtr->dColor, true ) ;
       while ( ++tLines <= lineCount && gsw.gschars() > 1 ) ;
    }  //* End FormatOutput() *

    The example above is just a simple one. To see it in action, please refer to the ’Dialogw’ NcDialog API Test Application, test seven (7). For a more sophisticated example, see the ’DialogTextbox::mlFmtDisplay’ automatic word-wrapping method in the NcDialog API source code.

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Technical Support

Please Note: All trademarks and service marks mentioned in this
document are the entirely-too-proprietary property of their
respective owners, and this author makes no representation of
affiliation with or ownership of any of the damned things.


The NcDialog family of classes, link library, demonstration apps and all associated Texinfo documentation were written and are maintained by: Mahlon R. Smith, The Software Samurai Beijing University of Technology on the web at: www.SoftwareSam.us For bugs, suggestions, periodic updates, or possible praise, please post a message to the author via website. The author wishes to thank everyone for their intelligent, kind and thoughtful responses. (ranters I can live without)

By the same author

The NcDialog-class link library, the FileMangler file management utility, and other utilities by the same author are also available through the website.

The NcDialog-class link library is a C++ API built on the ncurses C-language function library installed on most Linux systems. NcDialog provides console (text-based) applications with a simple and intuitive way to construct a dialog-based user interface without having to know much about the ncurses primitives (or dialog construction, for that matter). NcDialog has many built-in interface controls which make almost any user interface task a painless operation. The NcDialog-class library and source code are available on the author’s website.

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Copyright Notice

Both the gString source code and the full, NcDialog API library and source code are released under the GNU General Public License (GPL 3+).

The gString documentation (this document) and the NcDialog API documentation are released under the GNU Free Documentation License (FDL 1.3+):

Copyright © 2005 - 2020
            Mahlon R. Smith, The Software Samurai

This manual describes version 0.0.03 of the WaylandCB class,
and version 0.0.27 of the gString class.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled  "GNU Free Documentation License".

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GNU General Public License

Version 3, 29 June 2007

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When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs, and that you know you can do these things.

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    If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. “Knowingly relying” means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient’s use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid.

    If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it.

    A patent license is “discriminatory” if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

    Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

  13. No Surrender of Others’ Freedom.

    If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.

  14. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.

    Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the combination as such.

  15. Revised Versions of this License.

    The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

    Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General Public License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

    If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy’s public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.

    Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version.

  16. Disclaimer of Warranty.


  17. Limitation of Liability.


  18. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

    If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.


How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the “copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. Copyright (C) year name of author This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see https://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

program Copyright (C) year name of author This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type ‘show w’. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type ‘show c’ for details.

The hypothetical commands ‘show w’ and ‘show c’ should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program’s commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an “about box”.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see https://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, please read https://www.gnu.org/licenses/why-not-lgpl.html.

Previous: , Up: Copyright Notice   [Contents][Index]

GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc. https://fsf.org/ Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

    The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

    This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

    We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.


    This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

    A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

    A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

    The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

    The “Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

    A “Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not “Transparent” is called “Opaque”.

    Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

    The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

    The “publisher” means any person or entity that distributes copies of the Document to the public.

    A section “Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, “Endorsements”, or “History”.) To “Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section “Entitled XYZ” according to this definition.

    The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.


    You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

    You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.


    If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

    If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

    If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

    It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.


    You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

    1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
    2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
    3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
    4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
    5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
    6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
    7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice.
    8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
    9. Preserve the section Entitled “History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled “History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
    10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
    11. For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
    12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
    13. Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
    14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
    15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

    If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

    You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

    You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

    The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


    You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

    The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

    In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”


    You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

    You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.


    A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

    If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.


    Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

    If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.


    You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

    However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

    Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

    Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.


    The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See https://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

    Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy’s public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.


    “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site” (or “MMC Site”) means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration” (or “MMC”) contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.

    “CC-BY-SA” means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.

    “Incorporate” means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.

    An MMC is “eligible for relicensing” if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.

    The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

Copyright (C) year your name. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License''.

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with…Texts.” line with this:

with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts being list.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.

Previous: , Up: Top   [Contents][Index]


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C   F   G   M   S   T   W  
Index Entry  Section

06.11.04 Wayland Clipboard: Wayland Clipboard
06.11.05 Wayclip Demo App: Wayclip Demo App
07 gString Text Tool: gString Text Tool
07.01 Introduction to gString: Introduction to gString
07.02 gString Public Methods: gString Public Methods
07.03 gString Instantiation: gString Instantiation
07.04 Assignment Operators: Assignment Operators
07.05 Formatted Assignments: Formatted Assignments
07.06 Integer Formatting: Integer Formatting
07.07 Data Access: Data Access
07.08 Copying Data: Copying Data
07.09 Modifying Existing Data: Modifying Existing Data
07.10 Comparisons: Comparisons
07.11 Statistical Info: Statistical Info
07.12 gString Miscellaneous: gString Miscellaneous
07.13 gString Examples: gString Examples
09 Technical Support: Technical Support

10 Copyright Notice: Copyright Notice
10.01 GNU General Public License: GNU General Public License
10.02 GNU Free Documentation License: GNU Free Documentation License

clipboard access, public methods: Wayland Clipboard
contact info: Technical Support
contact information: Technical Support

fiUnits enumerated type: Integer Formatting
formatInt field overflow: Integer Formatting
formatInteger replacement: Integer Formatting

gString Docs: Top
gString methods: gString Public Methods
gString text conversion: gString Text Tool

methods, gString: gString Public Methods

support: Technical Support

text conversion, gString: gString Text Tool

wayclip demo app: Wayclip Demo App
wayland clipboard: Wayland Clipboard
WaylandCB class: Wayland Clipboard
WaylandCB Docs: Top
WaylandCB public methods: Wayland Clipboard

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C   F   G   M   S   T   W